Phytosterols are structural homologs of cholesterol that occur naturally in many plant foods. Over 30 years of research and 40 clinical trials suggest that phytosterols provide significant support for healthy lipid profiles. Well-established benefits of phytosterols on lipid balance stem primarily from the competition with cholesterol for occupancy in micelles, particles that carry cholesterol across the intestinal epithelium into the systemic circulation. Through this mechanism, phytosterols promote the excretion of cholesterol in the form of bile acids. Research indicates that the pine-derived phytosterols offered in this formula are comparable to phytosterols from other sources. Bergamot is a citrus fruit containing two newly discovered derivatives of the flavonoids hesperidin and naringenin. These compounds are naturally conjugated to a moiety known as hydroxymethylglutarate (HMG).
In the liver, this unique molecule binds and modulates an enzyme known as HMG CoA reductase, which plays a central role in lipid biosynthesis. These unique compounds also target enzymes, transcription factors, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. In a study involving 192 volunteers, bergamot juice maintained healthy cholesterol levels in the normal range over a 30-day period. In a separate study of 80 subjects, 150 mg of flavonoids from Bergavit® 40 bergamot extract supported healthy lipid and glucose profiles over a 6-month period. Berberine supports cardiometabolic health through a variety of mechanisms, including support for glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and cytokine production. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving 116 subjects, berberine provided statistically significant support for glucose and lipid metabolism. It also helps maintain endothelial function by promoting healthy vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and healthy iNOS activity.*